Friday, October 30, 2015

Motion Control - The Heart of CNC (part 1 of 2)

What is Motion Control?

Motion control can be applied in many categories such as robotics, CNC operated machine tools and Kinematics, wherein motion control in kinematics are usually simpler. It can be mainly used nowadays with packaging, textile, assembly industries, printing, and semiconductor production. The hardware of a motion controlled machine usually consists of drive systems, motors, a computer, a PLC or Programmable Logic Controller to run the programs, and an amplifier.

The basic design of a motion control system would include a motion controller to produce a set of points including closing a position, a drive or amplifier to convert the control signal of the motion controller into a high power electrical current, an actuator, one or more feedback sensors, and mechanical components to convert the motion of the actuators to the desired motion.

CNC machines use programmable commands to make inputting motion to the machine easier rather than using cranks or other conventional machine tools. Almost all CNC machine tools can have programmable motion type (whether it would be rapid, linear or circular), the amount of motion, the feedback rate, and the axes to move.

Motion control is the simplest function of any Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine. It is precise, consistent, and automatic system of control. CNC equipments need two or more modes of direction to which they are called axes. There are two common axis types and they are called linear and rotary. The linear axis type of motion control is driven along a straight path while the rotary axis type is driven along a circular path.

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