Friday, October 30, 2015

Motion Control - The Heart of CNC (part 2 of 2)

The operator of the motion controlled machine counting the number of revolutions made on the handwheel, added the generations of the dial would accomplish accurate positioning. The drive motor of the machine would be rotated to a resulting amount, which would then drive the ball screw, which would cause the linear motion of the axis. The feedback device at the end of the ball screw would confirm its revolutions.

The same linear motion can be found on a table vise. When you rotate the vise crank, it would also rotate a lead screw, which would then be able to drive the movable jaw in the table vise. In comparison to a motor controlled CNC machine, the linear axis in it is extremely precise compared to that of a table vise. This is because the number of revolutions of the axis drive motor in the CNC machine accurately controls the amount of linear motion along the axis.

A CNC command programmed and executed within a control of a machine would tell the drive motor of the machine as to how many number of precise times it would rotate. This in turn would rotate the ball screw then the ball screw would drive the linear axis. After the process has started, a feedback device located at the end of the ball screw would confirm the programmed number of rotations that the machine would run has taken in effect.

How would axis motion be controlled?

Utilizing a form of coordinate system would make axis controlling a whole lot simpler and more logical to the CNC control. Two coordinate systems that are being used in CNC machines that have been popular are rectangular and polar coordinate system, to which the more popular of the two is the rectangular coordinate system.

Graphing is a common application for the rectangular coordinate system and is needed to cause movement in a CNC machine.

Motion Control - The Heart of CNC (part 1 of 2)

What is Motion Control?

Motion control can be applied in many categories such as robotics, CNC operated machine tools and Kinematics, wherein motion control in kinematics are usually simpler. It can be mainly used nowadays with packaging, textile, assembly industries, printing, and semiconductor production. The hardware of a motion controlled machine usually consists of drive systems, motors, a computer, a PLC or Programmable Logic Controller to run the programs, and an amplifier.

The basic design of a motion control system would include a motion controller to produce a set of points including closing a position, a drive or amplifier to convert the control signal of the motion controller into a high power electrical current, an actuator, one or more feedback sensors, and mechanical components to convert the motion of the actuators to the desired motion.

CNC machines use programmable commands to make inputting motion to the machine easier rather than using cranks or other conventional machine tools. Almost all CNC machine tools can have programmable motion type (whether it would be rapid, linear or circular), the amount of motion, the feedback rate, and the axes to move.

Motion control is the simplest function of any Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine. It is precise, consistent, and automatic system of control. CNC equipments need two or more modes of direction to which they are called axes. There are two common axis types and they are called linear and rotary. The linear axis type of motion control is driven along a straight path while the rotary axis type is driven along a circular path.

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

The History of the American Economic Recession (part 2 of 2)

After the 1817 recession, another recession in 1837 followed. With this recession, in just two months time, the economic decline accumulated to nearly $100,000,000 in value.  There were reportedly 343 banks that closed (out of the 850 banks). While 62 banks reported partial failure.

There were recessions that happened in 1857, 1873, 1893 and 1907. The 1907 economic recession was a financial crisis. Nearly 50 percent of the stock market fell from its peak in 1906. It's primary cause was a retraction of loans by some banks that began in New York City and soon spread into the whole country. The 1907 recession was the fourth recession in 34 years.

The post-World War I recession hit not only the United States but much of the countries globally. Pre-war economy was showing fast economic growth. As a matter of fact, the decade before the war, the world economy was growing record high. After the war, the global economy stated to decline. The sharpest or worst decline was during 1921. the recession was a result of the end of wartime production along with the return of the troops without any employment. Global production was also affected by the war, especially those countries whose industries were shattered by the war.

What followed was known as the Great Depression that occurred from 1929 until 1939. It is the most dramatic, worldwide economic landslide. It affected not only industrialized countries b out also nations who rely in exporting their raw materials. It was the largest and most important economic depression in the world.

Five recessions in the United States followed after the Great Depression. It was the recession during 1953, 1957, early in the 1980s, early during 1990s and early 2000.

The early 2000 economic recession was not felt only in the United States, but was experienced in most Western Countries. The European Union was mostly hit during 2000 and 2001. While the United states was affected mostly during 2002 and 2003.

The History of the American Economic Recession (part 1 of 2)

This year, there have been murmurs that the United States is entering, again, into an economic recession. Although the National Bureau of Economic Research still has not release any formal announcement regarding this, American people are starting to experience an economic slowdown and a downturn in their financial and personal life.

This would not be the first time that the United States would experience an economic recession. According to economists, since 1854, the United States has encountered 32 cycles of expansions and contractions (boom and bust). There would be and average of 17 months of contraction an 38 months of expansion. However, since 1980 there have been only eight periods of negative economic growth over one quarter or more.

There were three period considered to recessions:

January- July 1980 and July 1981- November 1982: two years in total
July 1990- March 1991: eight months
November 2001- November 2002: twelve months

The longest record for an American economic boom was 37 quarters during 1991 until 2000.

The first economic recession happened in 1819. It greatly affected the new nation. After the War of 1812, the American economy was experiencing monetary strains. In 1814, during the term of President Madison, he allowed a replacement of a national bank. This enabled the post-war economy to boom. Although in 1817, there were some financial irregularities and irresponsibility. Americans started buying extravagant amounts of western lands- more than they can afford. The government started selling the land on credit.

On 1819, the government started to demand payment from the loans. During this time, the economy is starting to slow down. The market growth could no longer be sustained, the demands of American products are starting to wane. This led to a wave of bankruptcies and foreclosures. Land owners found themselves unable to pay their government debts and debts in the banks, leading to repossessing of lands.

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Home Exchange – More Random Tips (part 2 of 2)

Do’s and Don’ts
From the earliest part of the discussions (either face-to-face or in emails) it is advisable to establish parameters. These include hands-off rooms or closets, use of computers, cars, etc. It is good to be specific on matters such as who will foot the utility payments and other things like minor accidents using the appliances and the like.

Confirmations on all the agreed-on matter are very important. And they are useful if written down. People forget. Records stay on paper. Confirmations are also important on the final details of your arrangement.

Telling the neighbors
It is always good policy to inform the neighbors that you are lending your home to guests for the time you are away. Aside from potential untoward incidents or animosities, neighbors can be a big help to your guests.  

Instructions and notes
Write down emergency numbers of local doctors and local police for the benefit of your exchange partners. Include written guides and other instructions on how to operate appliances and other equipments or anything else that need some explanation.

Additional guests
If you are the guests and there will be an addition to your party, it is common courtesy that you inform your hosts. A friend or a relative or two might pop up and join you at the last minute either for part or all of your stay. Tell your hosts at once and if the home can accommodate the addition, in most cases it shall be accepted.

Clean up after you
You owe it to your hosts to put the home back to its original state: clean bed sheets on the bed, clean towels in the bathroom, washed and dried dishes in their racks, scrubbed oven, etc.

Replace items that you used up, like washing powder, sugar, cooking oil, etc. If you swapped cars as well, be sure to leave it with a full tank of gas.

The Golden Rule
The Golden Rule might serve as a good reminder that while you are at your home exchange partner’s home, he is also living in yours. What you would expect him to do with your house, he expects you to do the same to his.

Home Exchange – More Random Tips (part 1 of 2)

Home exchange, the relatively new phenomenon of swapping residences for a period of time by two travelers who want to go to the other’s place, is getting to be more and more popular these days. Judging by the proliferation of home exchange groups who facilitate these transactions, it seemed like the good idea had caught on.

Aside from the big savings in accommodations, swapping residences brings with it some fun, loads of adventure, and surprises one normally miss out staying in bland expensive hotels.

But finding your ideal swap mate can be difficult and tedious at times. And even if matters and issues have already been resolved and implemented, problems can still arise. As one old-timer says, a successful home exchange is a healthy combination of chemistry, flexibility, honesty, clear communication and some luck.

Checking, comparing and trying out some of the following random tips and guidelines might give both would-be guests and would-be hosts some help.

Communication is Key
Would-be exchange partners would do well if they are clear and accurate about the offer of their homes in the listing. Be honest but be polite. If your home is not child-proof, telling the other party would save time and effort right from the start. Both can move on and check out other would-be partners.

Partner with people of similar lifestyles
 Offer to exchange with others who share a similar lifestyle or interest such as yours. An exchange where the homeowners and guests share a hobby has been known to lead to long-term friendships.

Your teenagers might also be more receptive to traveling with you if they can meet and hook up with others their age, even if they have different cultures.

Sunday, October 18, 2015

Fish Oil Grades (part 2 of 2)

This type of health food grade fish oil undergoes a slightly more purification process by means of limited molecular distillation in order to remove some of its cholesterol content in order to label it as cholesterol free. An even purified version of this health food grade version of fish oil is known as fish oil concentrate. This is the type of fish oil consisting of ethyl esters of the fish oil that undergoes fractional cooling. This allows a more purified form of fish oil with lesser amounts of contaminants that cod liver oil.

Generally, this type of fish oil contains a better concentration of omega 3 fatty acids. A single one gram capsule contains about 300 mg of omega 3 fatty acids. One capsule of a thermally fractionated health food grade can contain as much as 500 mg of long chain omega 3 fatty acids.

Pharmaceutical Grade Fish Oil
Pharmaceutical grade fish oils have been ultra refined in order to provide the highest quality of fish oil. This grade of fish oil undergoes through certain specialized processes in order to come up with the most refined fish oil. Certain specialized equipment is usually used in order to detect the minutest amount of contaminants in the fish oil. Because it is ultra refined, it is thousand times purer than the molecular distilled health food grade fish oils.

An ultra refined pharmaceutical grade fish oil contains more omega 3 fatty acids than the previous two fish oil grades. A one gram of this type of fish oil contains around 600 mg of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. And for being the most refined of the three grades of fish oil, it contains the smallest amount of contaminants.

Fish Oil Grades (part 1 of 2)

Fish oil production does not just provide one type of end product. In fact, there are also other grades of fish oil being produced. The three types of fish oil produced today depend on their level of quality.

Cod Liver Oil
Cod liver oil, despite its popularity as a nutritional supplement, is considered as a low quality grade of fish oil. It may only be used in small amounts as an ideal supplement since this form of fish oil may contain certain contaminants. Cod liver oil is also known to contain high levels of vitamin A which can be toxic to humans in large doses.

One teaspoon of cod liver oil contains 500 mg of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. Cod liver oil contains the highest levels of contaminants which may include DDT, PCB’s as well as organic mercury. Taking this type of fish oil may not be safe in large quantities.

Health Food Fish Oil
Better quality grade fish oil is one that is sourced from a particular species of fish such as salmon. Most of these health food grade fish oil are usually available in soft gel capsules because they still carry with them a very poor taste profile. There is also a cholesterol free version of this type of fish oil grade.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Considerations When Buying Sewing Machines For Dressmaking

Individuals who have been in the dressmaking industry for so long would agree that the sewing machine is one's biggest investment when it comes to the tools needed. Since the machine will do most of the work, its price would range from one hundred dollars or higher depending on the quality of the sewing machine that will be used for dressmaking.

Since it would cost one that much money, an informed decision is very important before buying a sewing machine to ensure that he or she would waste a single cent in something that cannot really be used for a long time. In the market today, there are so many sewing machines available. Many of which come in cheaper prices and durable compared to more expensive ones. For this reasons alone why it is very important to be familiarized with everything about sewing machines suitable for dress making through a simple research before finally purchasing a unit.

Buying guidelines

The very basic thing to do before buying a sewing machine for dressmaking is to be familiarized with everything about it. One could do this by attending a simple sewing class online, reading various sewing references and asking veteran sewers. If a person is knowledgeable about the parts of sewing machine, he or she will never go wrong when buying one.

To be able to get a good quality sewing machine for dress making, it is best to choose a trustworthy dealer. Since sewing machines are expensive, always make sure that it is bought from a dealer that has good reputation. Although there are reliable online dealers that offer good quality sewing machines, it is best to opt for local dealers so one can inspect the unit first before paying for it.

A person can find reliable dealers through the recommendation of the sewers that he or she knows, taking public sewing classes, or visiting a sewing forum and ask for a list of trustworthy dealers. Once a dealer has been chosen, it is best to inquire about warranty and return policies.

For dress making, sewing machines are great investments because these are expensive. In fact, people that own these or even those who are planning to buy a single unit should be well aware of the things that need to be done in order to maintain its function. Knowing what and what shouldn’t be done in using a sewing machine will not only ensure efficient sewing but also worth of the product in the long run.

Aside from knowing the proper maintenance and caring for sewing machine, another consideration before buying one is the budget. Although there are so many types of sewing machines out there, one may not have the luxury of choosing the most expensive or branded ones due to budget constraint. To avoid frustration over something that a person cannot buy, always consider your spending limits in choosing a sewing machine.

What you can do is to do a short list of units that can fit the budget at hand and choose which is the best among them. Once there is a short list, one can now eliminate the options depending on the price, the quality and the preference of the buyer.

Other considerations would be the design of the sewing machine because this will affect the overall performance of the eaquipment when used for dress making.

A Look Back at how Vanessa Hudgens Started in her Acting Career (part 2 of 2)

For the two equally successful “High School Musical” TV movie, Hudgens played the role of Gabriella Montez. She played the love interest of real-life boyfriend, Zac Efron. Their roles had given them the “Best Chemistry” award given by Teen Choice Awards. The first movie also had a hit soundtrack and it brought the group on a concert tour worldwide. A book series was also made out of it.

With all the success she has garnered, Hudgens became the number seven on Forbes magazine’s top earning list of stars who are under 21. She was 18 years old at the time. She has an estimated $2 million of earnings. “High School Musical 3: Senior Year” is set to be released on October 24, 2008.

This talented gal was ranked 62nd of the Most Sexiest Woman on FHM just this year. She was also at number 12 at Maxim’s 100 Hot List. And she was also part of People magazine’s 100 Most Beautiful People.

Life on the Spotlight He career was marked with controversy when provocative pictures of Hudgens proliferated the Internet on September 6, 2007. The photos were passed on through emails, mobile phones and other devices. There were rumors then that she would be pulled out from the High School Musical franchise because she was no longer fit to be called a model for the youth.

But everything was settled. And Hudgens apologized to the fans and her family. After that, all is well again for this young superstar. Just looking back on how did Vanessa Hudgens get started in her acting career will inspire young minds about this craft if they are planning on joining the bandwagon.


A Look Back at how Vanessa Hudgens Started in her Acting Career (part 1 of 2)

How did Vanessa Hudgens get started in her acting career? This girl was born Vanessa Anne Hudgens on December 14, 1988 in Salinas, California. Her looks can be attributed to her parents’ descents. Her dad, Greg Hudgens is an American with the Native American and Irish background. Her mother, Gina, is a Filipino who grew up in Manila with traces of Filipino, Chinese and Spanish blood.

 Career Path Vanessa was inclined on the performing arts since she was a child. After she finished seventh-grade at the Orange County High School of the Arts, Vanessa opted for a home school setup.

When she was eight years old, she began joining musical plays. She was included on the main and supporting casts of plays such as "The Wizard of Oz," "The Music Man," "Damn Yankees," "Evita," "Carousel," The King and I," and "The Music Man.” Everything happened by chance for little Vanessa. Her first gig was a commercial. But it was purely accidental why she landed the part. She went on the audition just because her friend, who was supposed to go there, got sick and asked her to come instead.

In 2003, she debuted in the feature film "Thirteen." This stars Evan Rachel Wood and Holly Hunter. Vanessa also starred in "Thunderbirds," an action-adventure film. But Hudgens hit it big after playing the part of Gabriella in High School Musical, a TV movie made by the Disney Channel that was first released in 2006. That same year, she was able to release her debut album entitled “V.” In July of 2008, her second album entitled “Identified” was released.

After she started on movies, she also played bit roles for television. She guest starred for TV shows such as “The Bothers Garcia,” “Still Standing,” “Quintuplets,” “Drake and Josh” and “The Suite Life of Zack and Cody.